The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) came into force in 1995 as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. TRIPS integrates and builds on the latest versions of primary IP agreements managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Paris Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property and the Bern Convention on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. According to trips, the industrialized countries should have fully implemented the agreement by 1 January 1996. Members of developing countries and members in transition to a market economy were allowed to delay the full implementation of TRIPS commitments until 1 January 2000. The least developed members had until January 1, 2006 to meet their obligations, with the possibility of a new transition on demand. Developing countries, which, at the time of filing, did not grant patent protection for certain technology sectors, were given a new five-year period, until 1 January 2005, to guarantee such protection. In November 2005, the 2006 transition period for least developed countries was extended until 1 July 2013. The 2002 Doha Declaration confirmed that the TRIPS agreement should not prevent members from taking the necessary steps to protect public health. Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible TRIPS provisions, such as mandatory licensing, are almost impossible to obtain. The least developed countries, in particular, have made their young domestic manufacturing and technological industries proof of the infallible policy. An agreement reached in 2003 relaxed domestic market requirements and allows developing countries to export to other countries with a public health problem as long as exported drugs are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such regulations may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from affecting the markets of industrialized countries. In addition to the basic intellectual property standards set out in the TRIPS agreement, many nations have committed to bilateral agreements to adopt a higher level of protection.
This collection of standards, known as TRIPS or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms.  One of the general objectives of these agreements is that the TRIPS ON agreement is a minimum model agreement allowing members to more broadly protect the protection of intellectual property on demand. Members are free to determine the appropriate method of transposing the provisions of the agreement into their own legal and practical order. Article 40 of the TRIPS ON Agreement recognizes that certain practices or licensing conditions related to intellectual property rights that limit competition can have negative effects on trade and impede the transfer and dissemination of technology (paragraph 1).